Instruments used for making music up in the Appalachian Mountains were varied, however the most common instruments were the Guitar, Banjo, Mountain Dulcimer, and one's own voice. Drumming seems to be more in the background, by washboard, or by other instruments which have notches in them and are played by strumming a stick over the notches.
When Stringed instruments made their way to the Americas they were welcomed by musicians who had previously used whistles, flutes, rattles and drums.
The Banjo. The banjo is thought to be an American invention, however even in ancient China there was a banjo like instrument Called A Koto. Click here to read more about Banjos.
Mountain Dulcimer. The Mountain Dulcimer is unique in that it was made in the mountains. It is has several drone strings, and one string for the melody.
The Guitar. Guitars came over to the Americas, changing the scene by being a harmonic instrument in its self able to supply harmony, a lead melody, and a bass line.
To read more about the instruments, Click Here.